Innovators made a decision which usually more time outside patio’s, soft urethane wheels, extensive vans are generally greater pertaining to working with the specific high-speed downhill racers. The particular downhill longboard will be the best cell using this. Just what cell should you pick? You are able to pick almost any terrace along with it could be create being a downhill the particular girl longboards, nonetheless, experts who have employed after several cedars taken that you have fundamentally a couple of terrace models which can be very best put in pertaining to downhill longboarding: The specific lower by means of longboard plus the finest affix longboard.
What exactly is Downhill Longboarding?
Downhill Longboarding presents produced by means of professional skateboarding and it’s also when using any skateboard, and even longboard as an example, inside of the unique approach. Just as the skateboard, you can do essentially whichever you desire along girl longboards. You should utilize this kind of being a clear means of carry in regards to the streets with the frantic community, you should utilize the specific longboard pertaining to freestyle tips and even lower in the particular snow roller skating car park. You’ll find different longboards per layout, aim and even landscaping plus the types are generally continuous so that you can produce along with conforming to the specific skater’s specifications along with brand-new ideas.
Tips to buy:
- It will be a good idea to get any inflexible cell pertaining to downhill longboarding. A lot of longboard brands racers just like the lower by means of a longboard.
- when you truly want the specific speediest approach reduced the specific incline in addition to high-speed, many racers found that the most effective affix longboard is the better.
- For whoever has certainly not eradicated speedy, you would enjoy the specific lower by means of longboard due to its equilibrium.
- This is the best cell if you are the particular novice inside downhill girl longboards. The specific lower by means of longboard presents availabilities after achievable factor from your cell in which your own personal vans are generally decreased by means of.
- It really is far more regular and in addition, an individual is generally lowered on the flooring giving you a smaller amount midsection from the legislation regarding gravity, which usually helps someone while using the anxiety inside of high-speed.
- Through selecting the best terrace dimensions, select the genuine more time sorts if you are the particular novice.
- This provides someone far more equilibrium. It’s going to be a lesser amount of maneuverable; nonetheless, it’s going to be superior to experience unstable around the quick table.
- Downhill cedar typically differs from 37″- 43″. Unless you determine what period you desire.
- If you might have performed a couple of mountains along with feel comfortable while using the rate, nonetheless, you desire more rapidly along with the need to test high-speed, it is possible to decide on the finest affix longboard.
- The top affix the particular girl longboards give you greater functionality if you are reduced tough mountains.
- Something which is important so that you can discover how to slow inside of constrained ends which usually cell can assist you using this type of.
- Should an individual commence longboarding by means of zero, with no in fact snow roller skating after almost any cedar ahead of, you are going to 1st receive enthusiastic basically by means of the fact someone didn’t fall?
- This kind of continual along with uncontrollable velocity may well shock someone as you don’t contain the tiniest notion what direction to go and even tips on how to end this kind of.
It’ll commence you should find out 1st tips on how to become braking method preventing. Essentially the most pleasurable along with a tough approach to accomplish it is in fact by means of falling. There actually are several falling models. They may be experiencing great so that you can adhere according to the rate someone perform this kind of. These stage goes more rapidly along with more rapidly mainly because downhill girl longboards are approximately the specific rate.
To focusing on how you can glide prior, you will need to choose a good little bit of smooth property to rehearse your own slipping position. Training your own slipping position after even property can make factors simpler, in addition, you won’t need to worry about the whole sliding away whilst going quick point. If you’re obtaining that longboard for beginner’s real smooth region is not sufficient, check out the actual turf. It really is better to stableness on the fantastic area associated with turf. Sliding is an excellent practice however, not for all.
Is sliding possible for Longboarders?
There are many methods to glide. The easiest method is always to imagine about how precisely exactly you’ve noticed others take action, as well as exercise the real motion. This specific includes squatting lower, getting longboard brands, as well as driving this from beneath a person with your back again foot. This can be easier theoretically. Exercise the actual movements many times as well as whenever your sensation great regarding most of them, take a look on the downward slope.
Tips for slipping practice:
– The first-time a person make an effort sliding, you will drop likely. This can be inevitable which is area of the training procedure.
– Another poor point regarding finding out how to slide is genuine which you cannot execute a great slide unless you are actually moving quick. This specific can make slipping terrifying.
– Numerous longboard brands would prefer to utilize crammed longboards whenever using downhill given that they have a tendency to be one of the just boards that have been designed for higher rate skaters.
– The real decks have a tendency to be created specifically to supply the consumer a lot more manage in comparison to they’d own on the standard longboard.
– The actual position from the pickup trucks differs too. It really is about offering you simpler techniques for finding the actual mother board sliding.
– Right now you’re nearly prepared to get started slipping the longboard. Make sure that you exercise thooughly your own movements perfectly, or even whenever you can the real hill, you will get a few unpredicted benefits.
– That can be done this, although. It’s simple. To put it simply by yourself security equipment plus a headgear once you take a look the first time.
– The article writer truly desires longboarding as well as everything concerning this. At this time, as well as wants to assume that he’s very informed about them.
– Longboarding may be known as ‘sidewalk browsing on’ which is much like skateboarding. If you are newer to longboarding, there are repeated associated with variants you’ll want to know.
– This particular size helps it be better to achieve greater rates along with significantly less are well as can make most of them perfect for downhill or even slalom hurrying.
– longboard for beginners will also be usually linked along with superior, much softer rims, that jump a whole lot softer trip.
– Even though you can buy as well as come up with the person regions of the longboard it could recommend for just about any newbie to commence with a whole board.
– You’ll find so many associated with manufacturers which create top quality total longboards such as Packed as well as Sector 9. Once you get a longboard as well as take it off in regards to to the first time try to decide on a peaceful region along with because chiseled the area as possible.
– If you want street using, it is possible to choose a lowrider longboard along with decks that have a solid wood laminate that’s resilient plus a reduced account that is right for pressing as well as carving.
Consider your own objective in regards to to using whenever selecting among these varieties of longboard brands. Leisure cyclists might take benefit of those that are created from organic and natural wooden in regards to to durability whilst show or even competitive cyclists may choose co2 soluble fiber or even fiberglass that could manage leaps, visits, as well as quick rates. Downhill bombing or even experienced cyclists might take good thing about firmer bushing in regards to to balance whilst mild bushing will offer manage in regards to to common transport.
Selecting the Greatest longboard brands or even the top Longboards is not really a simple work to do. Whether or not, you really are a newbie, advanced or even professional in longboarding similarly challenging job for everybody. This continues to be simply as hard as it had been to the people who began the professional skateboarding trend long ago in 1960s.
These days, longboarding is the majority of positively growing form of skateboarding and it has used a life of its own. You will find countless people that are studying and changing to longboarding jointly day.
Right now, we need to check out a few of the greatest longboarding Brand dependent on numerous extensive variables, which I really feel essential to longboards:
Most of the riders are running after Santa Cruz as it includes the prosperous past. They go as far back towards the origins of longboarding and skateboarding has become famous with the sports activity. Generally there specialty is to get cult followings of the Star Wars series in to longboarding.
- A great longboard has a comfortable width of ten inches, which makes it steady.
- Smooth wheels, for much had better grip in high-speed like in downhills.
- Bearings will require to be replaced for a much better riding encounter.
- Additionally, appropriate to proceed around the city or even university.
- Trucks really are a level over anything at all offered at this particular price. Turns excellent!
- This is definitely one of the greatest Santa Cruz Longboards.
Possibly not as illustrious as the competition, however, Yocaher continues to be generally there for nearly as lengthy as anyone is otherwise. Yocaher Longboards tend to be described as the greatest affordable Model of Longboard created for cruisers. Their own longboards are best suited for newbie and intermediates as well.
- One of the most widely utilized Yocaher Longboards many thanks to the style and price.
- It is similarly appropriate for newbie as nicely as sophisticated longboarders many thanks to the drop straight down style.
- Having a curvy form on the deck, it really is simple to strengthen yourself whilst riding.
- Bearings may have to be replaced at some point.
- May be used to accomplish fairly higher rates of speed.
Especially, Atom really is a Brand name of the Colony Sports group. This Brand just has been around since in 2005. Still Atom are thought one of the most cost effective for money Brands in modern day market. Their particular longboards tend to be inexpensive and sturdy in exactly the same period.
- The drop via style requires the middle of gravity low and improves balance.
- They have invert King Pin setup that is something to a longboard.
- It’s one of a kind deck style preserves the deck through wheel chew, in spite of the main deck becoming therefore lower.
- A fresh excellent longboard for newbie and it is truly inexpensive.
- Great for carving and cruising and soon as the proper tightening is accomplished.
HOW CAN ONE CHOOSE|CHOOSING THE PERFECT LONGBOARD:
Now, that I feel completed with recommending a few of the greatest longboards accessible and available for you to purchase and begin studying or even mastering your abilities. It is time for you to understand how to choose the greatest longboard to be by yourself in a good easy to understand and rational method:
Choose what type of longboard you require based on your level of experience with riding a longboard. Additionally, maintain in thoughts exactly what you are getting to do as soon as you have discovered sufficient of newbie exercise.
Based on the numerous longboarding designs, select a longboard, which is suitable for your favored Assembling a longboard through yourself that will not possible be integrated right here because it is definitely a whole subject alone.
Do not overlook the helmets, elbow and elbow pads and the sliding gloves. Use correct safety gear. Since you understand, the queries, which you possess to think about, I, can help you allow it to be simpler to choose what exactly it, which you really would like is. Considering the fact that you are going through my instruction, and probably you are searching for longboards for a newbie in the right spot, my pal!
There is absolutely no much better method to drill a straight pit compared to a drill press. It does not matter exactly how cautious you are, you can never obtain a pit because straight and perpendicular to the function surface area along with a handheld drill because you might along with a drill press. Your drill press reviews will help you fulfill your desires.
Whenever searching for one of the best drill press, the subsequent criterion should become held in thoughts:
- Steadiness —
This particular handles exactly how straight and correct your gaps. Generally, there are quantities of aspects, which affect the steadiness, such as line dimension, foundation dish, table dimension, and spindle diameter and spindle bearings.
- Motor size —
Certainly, the bigger the electric motor, the larger drill pieces, which may be utilized, and the harder materials, which can be reduced, without having drill “chatter” and jamming.
- Spindle heart stroke —
A genuine comfort product, it affects what lengths one may maneuver the drill little bit straight down in the direction of the function surface area. Something to notice is the fact that the further the spindle stretches the much more chance of “chatter” and eccentric little bit motion.
- Hand crank for table height —
Once again, this really is a comfortable product, however you may not would like to assistance the body weight of a cast iron drill press table along with one hand, whilst tightening up the clamp along with the some other.
- Laser crosshairs —
Whilst not required, it is most likely one of the best choices on a drill press. The crosshairs determine where the middle of the drill little bit wills certainly property, practically removing the chance of drilling a pit in the incorrect location.
- Transfers —
The majority of drill press possesses a seatbelt and pulley program, permitting a quantity of various little bit rates of speed. This really is most significant whenever reducing alloys, because an excessively quick reducing pace will certainly “burn” the drill little bit, leading it to shed the mood and turn out to be ahead of time boring.
Choosing a Drill Press
Generally, there are a number of different points to look at, whenever attempting to select a drill press. Very first, you will require understanding the kind of function, which you are flying to perform along with it. The majority of particularly, you require possessing a concept of the kinds of components you are heading to utilize, the dimension of the function items and the dimension gaps you will require to weary via all of them.
Usually do not trouble looking at a drill press that will not support the actual physical dimension of the items you would like to drill. Which means a mixture of the range between the chuck and the table, and the range through the chuck to the line, or even tonsils level? Tonsils level is not usually supplied to drill press therefore you might have to estimation it based on the sizes provided.
Motor Size & Pace
Motor size is the very first thing for the dimension gaps you can drill and, which type of materials, you may drill all of them. Whenever you begin working on metal or even begin drilling big gaps, for example along with entire saws, you will require a great deal of power. Simply to provide you a concept, reducing a 1″ pit via moderate metal band along with a pit noticed may swamp, fen, marsh, quagmire straight down a 3/4 HP electric motor in case you avoid getting it slower.
An additional extremely important standard that many individuals usually do not spend a lot interest to be the heart stroke size. The spindle may travel this particular range downwards, through the relaxing location to the optimum level of reduction. The drill press along with a brief heart stroke size will certainly restrict exactly what duties you may use it.
Tables on almost all drill press are sufficient along with the majority of the smaller sized to mid-sized drill press getting circular tables, which point and change. Will have them placed for installation a drill press or even for utilizing hold-downs for your function item? The bigger drill press may have tables, which are T-slotted for installation to.
Some other possible choices to think about
Whilst the main specs are truly the determining element in purchasing a drill press, a few producers include extras to many, which is why they are considered simpler to use.
- Depth Gauge:
One of the best extras to discover is a depth gauge. It may be a rotary-gage, which circles the heart strokes management, or even a thread gauge connected to the spindle. In either case, these people permit you to understand how heavy you are drilling in to the materials.
- Work light:
You may also discover that a drill press includes a lighting connected. These types of possibly could be on a gooseneck or even installed in the head at the rear of the spindle and these people are very helpful for enhancing presence of your function item.
New technology gives drilling operations more firepower at the quarry face.
Increasing productivity in drilling operations.
Some drilling contractors are finding success using a new hammer from Driltech Mission.
As a drill bit’s rate-of-penetration increases, drilling productivity goes up.
Drilling downhole for blasting rock in a quarry is, at best, an expensive procedure for the owner. Once the hole pattern, hole diameter, drilling direction and depth of the holes to be drilled have been established for a given bench in a quarry, it is the drilling productivity and hammer/drill- bit dependability that becomes a major consideration.
The term productivity relates to the drilling rate-of-penetration. Naturally, the time required for repositioning the drill, for boring the next hole, also contributes to overall drilling productivity.
There is a set of drilling-condition variables unique to each quarry. Since drilling conditions do vary widely from quarry to quarry, the individual quarry’s penetration rates become meaningless to other quarry people because the same penetration rates probably cannot be reproduced in their quarries. However, results that show increased penetration rates for one hammer over another are – where both hammers were used at the same bench in the quarry, and powered by the same drill – of significant value to all those concerned with increasing drilling productivity.
In with the new
Gill Drilling Services Inc., Spartanburg, S.C., is a drilling contractor and drilling equipment dealer. Doug Gill, president, says his company used the Mission-6 hammer by Driltech Mission LLC. on its own drilling projects for seven months before selling any to its customers. Depending on the rock type being drilled and the size compressor (air-delivery capacity) used, he and his customers are realizing a 10 to 30 percent increase in penetration rates over other quality hammers.
Some customers who are having significant penetration-rate increases using the hammer are, according to Gill, Martin Marietta and Vulcan Materials.
Another contractor/dealer enjoying increased penetration rates with the Mission-6 is Rock Drill Sales & Service Inc., of Conyers, Ga. The company owns 20 down-the-hole drill rigs and 12 top-hammer types. It has drilling contracts with quarry operations and for construction projects.
“This new hammer is an improvement over other hammers,” says Chip Newman. “We constantly are getting a 15 percent increase in penetration rates even over the best conventional hammers we have. One of our customers, Vulcan Materials, is experiencing similar penetration-rate results at their quarry.”
Newman says there was a problem with the first-produced hammers – their sleeves were wearing excessively. He says each of these first-built sleeves had a drilling life of only 14,000 lineal ft., while the competitors’ hammers’ sleeves were usable for 22,000 lineal ft. of drilling.
That early problem was resolved quickly, however, according to Matt Shofner, R&D supervisor for Driltech Mission. He explains, “The early sleeves were not case-hardened so their wear resistance was not up to par. Now that we case-harden all the sleeves, they wear as well as any other sleeve on the market.
“In designing this hammer, we made sure the cost to purchase and maintain one would be no more than the better hammers offered by our competitors. With no higher costs and the improved productivity of this hammer, it can be a good choice for many quarries.”
North of the border
Fern LeClair, president of equipment company M.L. Air Inc., Laval, Quebec, Canada, says his company has sold six Mission-6 hammers. Of the six, four are owned by the drilling contractor, Forage-Dynamitage Rive, Sud Inc.
The company has drilling contracts with some of the largest quarry companies in Quebec. “Forage-Dynamitage Rive is reporting 20 to 25 percent faster penetration rates compared with the other hammers they use,” says LeClair. “They also say the simple, four-piece hammer design is easy to service.”
Most of the drilling by the contractor is performed in granite. Granite is an igneous rock that consists of feldspar, plagioclase and quartz. Two physical characteristics associated with this rock are its strength and abrasiveness. The harder the rock, the slower the drill’s penetration rate. The more abrasive the rock is, the faster the drill bit wears.
LeClair says in these rock conditions the Mission-6 hammer can be used for downhole drilling 25,000 to 30,000 lineal ft. before the sleeve must be replaced. The carbide on the Driltech Mission drill bits also is performing well with no fractionation. This outstanding drilling performance is experienced despite abrasive rock that has an uniaxial compressive strength to 25,000 lb./in.2.
All the people interviewed for this report say this new hammer has definitely raised the standard of what a hammer can be expected to perform. However, they caution, there is no certainty it is the best hammer for all quarries. This, they say, only can be determined by the individual quarry testing one on-site and comparing its productivity with the hammer it is currently using.
Mission-6 stands for a 6-in-diameter hammer, which it is. It is the first diameter-size in a series of hammers to be marketed by Driltech Mission. Coming shortly will be a 4-in.-diameter hammer aimed specifically at the water-well drilling industry.
The design of the Mission-6 hammer is about 20 percent shorter than more conventional 6-in.-diameter hammers and it has fewer components, thus making it easier to service or repair. Of significance, there are no foot valves, makeup rings or moving air control valves. Also, it has a reversible piston case and a lubricated 12-spline shank.
The spline stands up well under drilling activities because there is no plastic foot valve to contend with. The drill-bit shank is newly designed. No shanking (excessive shank wear) has been experienced, so the drill bit has a longer usable life. The reason for designing both the hammer and drill bit shorter and nearly equal in size and weight is that more of the kinetic energy sourced from the hammer is transferred to the drill bit and subsequently to the rock being drilled. A longer, conventional hammer can transfer about 75 percent of the energy to the bit but the Mission-6 hammer transfers up to 90 percent of the energy.
As seen, the longer conventional hammer and drill bit may not be as efficient in transferring energy. One reason is, the longer the hammer and drill bit, the more springy they are. This springiness causes some of the kinetic energy to transfer back from the drill bit to the hammer instead of transferring to the rock, thus reducing energy-transfer efficiency.
Naturally, the more energy transferred from the drill bit to the rock, the faster the drill bit’s rate of advancement into the rock. This explanation of how the new hammer/drill bit functions is over-simplified. Actually, the action of forces involved is known as mechanical impedance, which can be expressed mathematically. For maximizing energy transfer, the mechanical impedances are, by Beccu’s design, similar for both the drill bit and hammer.
For best design, he used a computer simulation in designing the hammer and drill bit. It was from these simulations that prototypes were built and field tested. All the field-design improvements made to the hammer and drill bit were achieved step-by-step with each improved prototype tested.
Intensive field trials for the hammer have been on-going since September 1998. These field trials followed hammer-prototype testing that started in February of that year.
With all design improvements in place, the company started manufacturing the hammers and drill bits in early 1999.
Driltech Mission calls the efficient-energy-transfer phenomena used in its Mission-6 hammer “Mirror Impact Technology.” Rainer Beccu, department chairman of R&D for Driltech Mission and inventor of the hammer, likes to illustrate why the hammer is so efficient by comparing it and its newly-designed drill-bit companion to two billiard balls. Take two same-size balls of equal weight and propel one towards the second, which is static, and all the energy from the propelled ball is transferred to the static ball upon its impact. The energy transfer propels the second ball in the same direction as the first was moving before the impact. The ball first propelled stops dead upon the impact with the second ball.
What took place in this sequence of actions is, all the kinetic energy of the first-propelled ball was completely transferred to ball number two, thus sending it into propulsion. And since all the kinetic energy of ball-one was transferred to ball-two, ball-one became instantly static.
‘I used that simple kinetic-energy-transfer premise when I designed the Mission-6 hammer,” explains Beccu. “The billiard ball is an over simplification of the hammer’s design but in principle, it is what the relationship between the hammer and drill bit is when the energy is transferred.”
The results between the newly designed hammer discussed here and other hammers are expressed as the percent of increased penetration rates experienced.
Purposely, penetration rates, expressed as measured advancement per unit of time, have been avoided.
This report is only concerned with the performance results of hammers used in daily production at various quarries.
It is worth noting that the companies named in this report as owners of this new hammer and reporting on their drilling production do not necessarily endorse the hammer or recommend it to others.
With this said, both quarries and drilling contractors have been using the hammer regularly for up to one-and-one- half years with significant performance successes. The rate of downhole drilling penetration in these quarries has been 15 to 30 percent greater than conventional hammers of many other makes.
While field testing is important in verifying the potential of any product’s performance, it does not replace the product’s performance- record realized when it is used as a production tool in quarries.
A trellis is a pleasant-appearing structure that supports plants. Many flowers, such as morning glories, sweet peas, and climbing roses, do best and look best when grown on a trellis. Vegetables such as pole beans and certain types of cucumbers should be grown with support such as a trellis. While there are many types of trellises, metal trellises aren’t recommended for most plants since they get too hot when the sun hits them. The wood trellis described here is a fan-type that looks great and is easy to make.
What You Need:
* 1-8′ long 2×4 board (treated wood preferred) * 4-8′ long 1×2 or 1×3 boards * 1-6″ long 5/16″ carriage bolt * 1-5/16″ nut * 15-30 6d galvanized nails * 8″ to 10″ plastic cable ties (available at auto supply or hardware stores) Common twist ties can also be used. * exterior latex paint (optional)
Making It: Refer to the photos and drawing for all the following steps.
1.Lay the five boards down on the ground so that two 1x2s are on the bottom. The 2×4 is in the middle, and two 1x2s are on top.
2.Using a 5/16″ drill bit, drill a hole through all five boards about 8″ from one end. If you have a long enough drill bit, you can drill through all five boards that are stacked together.
3.Line up holes in the boards and push the bolt through the holes. A hammer can help here.
If the drill bit is only long enough to drill through three of the boards at one time, drill the other two boards separately.
4. Screw on and tighten the nut.
5. Bend the outer 1×2 boards. Keep them in place with the use of a crosspiece 1×2 board nailed to them. A helper here makes the job quicker and easier. See photos and drawing.
Note. The measurements given in the drawing are only guides.
6. Bend the other two 1×2 boards and nail the 1×2 crosspiece to these boards.
7. Similarly, nail the other two 1×2 crosspieces to the four 8′ 1×2 boards and the center 2×4 board.
This completes the construction. For a longer lasting trellis, paint it before using.
There are several ways to use this trellis. You can attach it to a wall of a house, you can attach it to a post in the ground, or you can, as I did, simply dig a 2′ deep hole and stick the end of the trellis in the hole and fill it in. As mentioned earlier, this trellis can be used to support vegetable and flower plants. The photos show the trellis being used to support a climbing rose. While inexpensive twist ties or even string can be used to attach the plant to the trellis, I found that plastic cable ties are longer lasting and do great job.
Within SMITH is an independent applications organization that provides expert drill bit selection, in addition to drilling systems design input and operating parameters selection, to its customers. Project demands on an operator’s drilling engineering organization frequently means insufficient time for a comprehensive bit selection process, often resulting in less than optimal bit performance, in turn leading to higher well costs. Smith’s Advanced Services Engineering (ASE) program provides full-time, experienced and expert bit application specialists as part of the customer’s drilling team.
The ASE engineer provides objective technical recommendations to the customer for the optimal bits for the application using a sophisticated suite of application analysis tools and the vast amount of historical data from our proprietary databases. Above all else, the ASE engineer is trained to remain objective and always act in the customer’s best interest, even when that means a competitor’s bit selection over a Smith bit. In addition to advising the customer on bit selection, the ASE engineer provides feedback to our design engineers on day-to-day drilling results and future drilling requirements as a means for ensuring that SMITH maintains superior bit performance.
Establishing a measurable goal
A bit’s performance and its interrelationship with a rig’s capabilities and the downhole environment significantly impact drilling costs. The ASE engineer considers the entire drilling environment as well as a rig’s capabilities when selecting the optimal bit. This includes the bottom hole assembly, drilling fluids, formation to be drilled, crew capabilities and any special drilling objectives during the bit design process.
In establishing a measurable goal, ASE engineers help prepare a comprehensive well plan and obtain the drilling team’s agreement to using this plan to evaluate drilling performance. A post-well analysis is performed that measures the success of the actual results versus the well plan and provides a permanent, formal reference for future development wells.
ASE engineers are on site worldwide in a multitude of drilling operations including multiple rig developments, exploration wells, shallow and deep offshore wells and directional and extended reach applications.
Optimal tools for optimal bits
The ASE engineer brings an arsenal of proprietary design and modeling tools to identify the optimal bit for the application. The toolbox includes Smith’s Drilling Records System (DRS), a collection of around three million bit runs from virtually every oil and gas field in the world. The database was initiated in May 1985 and has been continuously updated and expanded for oil, gas and geothermal wells. This information enables ASE engineers to evaluate individual bit runs anywhere in the world. When coupled with Smith’s Integrated Design Engineering Analysis System (IDEAS), engineers can simulate bit performance and enhance their bit designs to optimize that performance to a specific application.
The ASE engineer also utilizes the Drill Bit Optimization System (DBOS) to aid in determining the appropriate combination of cutting structure, gauge protection, hydraulic configuration and other bit optimizing features to help achieve the lowest cost per foot drilled. SMITH has offered DBOS for 17 years and utilizes a supporting database containing records from more than 11,300 projects in more than 56 countries, encompassing more than 16,300 wells.
Additionally, ASE engineers utilize Smith’s Yield Point drilling hydraulics and hole cleaning simulation and analysis software. Yield Point can identify potential hole cleaning problems in the planning stage rather than during drilling operations, further lowering well costs.
Planning the well starts with support from DRS, DBOS and Yield Point software and the ASE engineer’s experience and expertise in drill bit design and application. The well plan begins with the DBOS program and its analysis of offset wells from the DRS and an array of other relevant information. The DBOS analysis provides a thorough reconstruction of expected lithologies gleaned from well logs from the closest offset wells. The information includes a formation analysis, unconfirmed rock strength analysis and roller cone and fixed cutter bit selections.
Operational needs and the well plan are added to the process, including casing points and hole sizes, well directional plot, expected formation tops and mud weights and types. This results in an optimized minimum cost per foot well program that often also includes multiple options and alternatives to the initial well plan.
The Yield Point software creates a graphical user interface to aid drilling engineers in specifying the mud types and properties necessary to satisfy rheological models of drill strings and well annuli.
When the well plan is complete, the appropriate rig and office personnel are briefed on the drilling program. They can monitor the well prognosis during implementation of the well plan. Any problems that may arise are identified and investigated and decisions are made to correct the issues, subject to the objective of maintaining optimal drilling efficiency safely and timely.
Upon the well’s completion, a thorough performance assessment is conducted during which every facet of the drilling operation is evaluated. The drilling team, including Smith’s ASE engineer, then makes recommendations for improvements, which will be incorporated into future well plans.
Reducing drilling time reduces drilling cost
Smith’s ASE process and ASE engineers enabled Brazilian national oil company Petrobras to reduce its drilling days by up to 45% in the technologically challenging Tupi field in the Santos Basin 180 miles south of Rio de Janeiro. The ASE group within SMITH helped Petrobras optimize its operations in the Tupi field, which could result in the country increasing its proven reserves by up to 50%. The new field, in approximately 8,200 ft of water, contains an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of light crude.
Delineation wells are being drilled to determine the size of the field, however, based upon analysis from reservoir characterization studies, engineers estimate that the field could be 500 miles long and 120 miles wide with a 400 ft thick pay zone.
Due to the field’s potential size and the magnitude of the development project, Petrobras wanted an independent applications engineering organization to provide unbiased drill bit selection and well planning services to optimize performance and reduce expensive offshore drilling costs. The ASE engineers focus on recommending the ideal bit for a specific application, including a competitor’s bit if it is appropriate.
Petrobras must use some of the world’s most sophisticated and expensive deepwater drilling rigs where operational costs can reach $1 million per day. Because of the Tupi field’s high stakes, advanced planning becomes a powerful tool that can lead to significant cost savings.
A proactive approach can reduce the chance of non-productive, unexpected flat-time and help ensure that operations run as smoothly as possible. The ASE engineers can focus on any combination of customer requirements including well planning, logistics, data collection or post well analysis. DRS, DBOS, Yield Point and IDEAS software is at the engineers’ disposal.
To meet Petrobras’ well objectives, Smith’s ASE engineers and Petrobras’ engineers conducted an in-depth investigation of expected formation types and rock strengths that led to optimized bit recommendations to result in increased overall drilling efficiency. The ongoing interaction between the two companies’ engineering teams enabled Petrobras to organize its bit inventory in an application-specific manner to assure the availability of the ideal bit for the application.
The study also identified an opportunity for SMITH to use its unique and proprietary IDEAS simulator to develop, test and manufacture new bit technology that conformed to Petrobras’ specific application and requirements. The new bit was designed to increase drilling distance (durability) and rate of penetration (ROP), which in many situations are mutually exclusive, without compromising the geologist’s ability to capture rock cuttings at the surface. The new bit technology is being tested on the formation below the salt interval.
As a result of the cooperative effort between ASE engineers and Petrobras’ engineers, the operator and its partners are experiencing a significant savings on this extremely challenging offshore project. One of the first wells drilled in the subsalt exploration program required 110 days to reach TD. However, due to Smith’s ASE involvement and other factors, Petrobras can now drill a similar well in the Tupi field area in approximately 60 days. ROP increased from just under 2 m/hr during the first well to above 3 m/hr in the third well and more than 6 m/hr in the fifth well. The higher ROP resulted in increased footage drilled from just less than 40 m drilled per day in the first well to more than 140 m per day in the fifth well.